An interactor is based in a design pattern called Command Pattern. A command has the exclusive and unique responsibility of performing one single operation. In other words, a command is an application's use case. Typically, an application will have many different interactor classes, each one responsible of executing atomically a different use case.

By having interactors, the business logic of your app is not going to be duplicated nor spread along the application layer. All business logic is going to be wrapped inside interactors.

As interactors classes have one single responsibility, all interactors will have one (and only one) public method that will be called execute (or will start with this name).

For example, we could have an interactor that returns the current time:

class CurrentTimeInteractor {
operator fun invoke(): Date = Date()


Interactors can perform from very easy to extremely complex operations. For this reason, it is a good practice to compose interactors in order to divide the reponsibility of each operation in its own interactor class.

For example, we could have an interactor that returns the time between now and a date:

class ElapsedTimeSinceNowInteractor(val currentTimeInteractor: CurrentTimeInteractor) {
operator fun invoke(date: Date): Long {
val now = currentTimeInteractor()
return now.time - date.time


All the examples on this page show synchronous interactors. To read about asynchronous interactors (and threading), visit the page Threading & Asynchrony.

Default Interactors

In order to access the CRUD operations of a Repository, there are interactors for each CRUD operation.

Default interators have one method called execute (in Kotlin, it is using the invoke operator) which contains the same parameters than the Repository functions, plus an optional Executor.


- GetInteractor<T>
- GetAllInteractor<T>


- PutInteractor<T>
- PutAllInteractor<T>


- DeleteInteractor

Note the naming conventions used in Swift: Interactor is a struct used to define a namespace and all default interactors are nested classes defined within that struct (namespace).

Swift Notes

For each interactor there are two sub-types: Interactor.XXX and Interactor.XXXByQuery. The ByQuery interactors are the ones equivalent to Android XXXInteractor. These interactors have an execute method than has the query as a parameter. Additionally, Swift has the Interactor.XXX which the query is passed upon initialization and not as a parameter in the execute method.

IdQuery CRUD extensions

Similar to the Repository public interface, all default interactors interfaces are extended with methods to access the CRUD functions by an Id using the IdQuery.

Default Interactors Composition

Typically, your custom interactors will require repositories to access the data manipulation layer.


It is recomended to compose default interactors instead of having direct references to repositories. Same applies with custom interactors composing other custom interactors.

class CountAllUsersInteractor constructor (
private val executor: Executor = AppExecutor,
private val getUsers: GetAllInteractor<User>) {
operator fun invoke (
executor: Executor = this.executor
): Future<Int> =
executor.submit(Callable {
return@Callable getUsers(executor = DirectExecutor).get().size
class UserLimitReachedInteractor constructor(
private val executor: Executor = AppExecutor,
private val userCount: CountAllUsersInteractor) {
operator fun invoke(
executor: Executor = this.executor,
limit: Int
): Future<Boolean> =
executor.submit(Callable {
val count = userCount(executor = DirectExecutor).get()
return@Callable count > limit

Best Practices

  • Try to wrap generic interactors inside a custom one. It has better naming, encapsulate a specific logic and reusable.

  • All interactors will receive a executor via constructor.

  • Also, supply a executor in the invoke/execute method doing reference to the contructor one as default. It gives us the possibility to change it for a particular execution.

class CurrentTimeInteractor(private val executor: Executor) {
operator fun invoke(executor: Executor = this.executor): Date = Date()
  • In the constructor, always have interactor references, avoid repository references. Adding one more layer of abstraction.
class CurrentTimeInteractor(private val executor: Executor,
private val getTimeZones: GetInteractor<TimeZones>) {
operator fun invoke(executor: Executor = this.executor): Date =